Base Chemicals

Base chemicals include ethylene, propylene, benzene and toluene, together with butadiene and butylenes, which form the basis of other products such as polyethylene and ethanol.

There are several base (or basic) chemicals that are the building blocks in the manufacture of petrochemical products: ethylene, propylene, butadiene and the so-called aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes).

These basic chemicals are themselves derived from the constituents of crude oil and natural gas - as shown in this table:

Flowchart for INEOS petrochemicals manufacture_v1B-01.png

原油含有各种尺寸和沸点的烃(含氢和碳的分子)的混合物。当原油加热时,各种成分沸腾,可以回收。丙烷和丁烷首先出现,其次是石脑油,类似于汽油(汽油)。在较高的沸点中出现煤油/喷射燃料,柴油,燃料油(用于电源大船)和沥青,用于道路表面的轨道。这些过程发生在炼油厂。

In a steam cracker (also called an ethylene cracker), naphtha is mixed with steam and heated up in furnaces to around 850°C for a very short period of time, typically fractions of a second, and then immediately cooled to prevent further reactions. This treatment breaks down the naphtha molecules – called “cracking” – into smaller ones such as ethylene (two carbon atoms), propylene (three carbon atoms), butadiene (four carbon atoms) and benzene (six carbon atoms in a ring). The steam helps reduce coke formation in the furnaces.

气体也是蒸汽饼干的原料来源。天然气主要是甲烷,用于国内供暖和电力车站的电力生产。甲烷也被消耗制成甲醇,另一种基本构建块化学品。稍微较重的分子,例如乙烷和丙烷,在天然气中存在少量%。这些可以分离并在蒸汽裂化器中裂化以产生乙烯和丙烯。

Besides steam cracking of naphtha and ethane/propane contained in natural gas, some building blocks are produced in oil refineries during processes to improve the quality of petrol. Examples are propylene from catalytic cracking and benzene, toluene and xylenes from catalytic reformers, a process used to increase the octane rating of petrol.

Ethylene

Ethylene is a flammable gas and is a primary olefin obtained through a steam cracking process. It is the key building block used to produce a large number of higher value added chemicals, including polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride via ethylene dichloride and styrene via ethylbenzene.

Propylene

Propylene is a flammable gas which is derived as a co-product either from the refinery fluid catalytic cracker process used to make gasoline or from the steam cracking process used to make ethylene. More recently, propylene is also being produced from processes such as propane dehydrogenation and metathesis. Propylene is an important feedstock for a significant number of industrial products and is the main feedstock for polypropylene and acrylonitrile.

Butadiene

Butadiene is a gas and is one of the co-products of the steam cracking process used to manufacture ethylene and propylene. Butadiene is used primarily in the production of polymers, principally synthetic rubbers such as styrene-butadiene rubber, which is used to make tyres and other rubber products. Other polymers made from butadiene include acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene and styrene-butadiene latex. Butadiene is also used to make ethylidene norbornene monomer.

苯is mainly produced from refinery processes or as a co-product of steam cracker operations. It is used to produce a number of petrochemical intermediates, such as styrene, cumene for phenol and acetone, cyclohexane and nitrobenzene.

甲苯

甲苯is a colourless, highly flammable liquid which is an olefins co-product produced during the steam cracking process. It is used as a gasoline blending component and a chemical raw material for producing benzene. It is also used as a plasticizer, chemical intermediate and polyester intermediate.

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